Example of a Argumentative essay on Management about:
Project Management / innovative techniques / implementation / strategic plan
The problem of implementing the main strategies of project management.
What is the strategic design of project management?
What are the project management key elements?
In what way can project management be implemented?
Project management is designed for not only large organizations with a lot of experience but for small industrial organizations.
Project Management Essay
1. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation
2. Project Management Process
3. Project management key elements
4. Strategic Issues in Project Management
5. Interpersonal dynamics and teams
6. Project management implementation
Introduction. Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation
As it is now known project management is one of the integral parts of the contemporary management system due to its ability to make sure that the goals set in the beginning of a project correspond exactly to the goals that were achieved later on. It goes without saying that the primarily aim of any project is a certain definite result. It can be a definite product, a service or information concerning the required aspects. Project management came as an answer to a great demand on quality management using special innovative techniques. Since a project can be applied to various spheres of activity of a company it automatically gets a wide range of usage. The fourth edition of David I. Cleland’s and Lewis R. Ireland’s “Project Management: Design and Implementation” appeared just in time to satisfy the growing need for effective management of the projects in any company. David Cleland is often called the father of “project management”. His prime target in the book is the explanation of the necessity of project management as a “tool” to reach strategic goals of any project. He views management as a constantly transforming solution-inventor directed to a successful result. The book examines the basic advantages of project management starting with general process and ending up with alternative project teams and the future of project management. The author emphasizes that project management takes into count many other important aspects such as cultural elements of project management, interpersonal dynamics, possible prospects and the exact instruction for its implementation within any project.
The book begins with the detailed explanation of how a manager is supposed to design and execute organizational strategies, or in other words to manage to control a project at any stage of its realization on practice. It offers the newest achievements in the sphere of state-of-the-art team design and project life-cycle evaluation. Project management is designed for not only large organizations with a lot of experience but for small industrial organizations, too. Cleland introduces flexible teams for the implementations of the strategies in practice. The implementation primarily occurs through the realization of changes either in products, services or in the processes of functioning of the organization.
Project Management Process
The principles of project management are completely related to the control of the organizational process. Cleland himself defines a principle as:” fundamental rule or law of action based upon desirable ends or objectives”. Such principle as: the principles of success, of commitment, the tetrad-tradeoff principle, the unity-of-command principle, the suitability principle, the process principle and the life-cycle principle. All of the principles listed above play a giant part in the right use of the project management strategy in order to successed. These principle state that first of all before beginning any activity within a project this step has to be revised in detail, in other words strategic planning goes before the step itself. Cleland sees a plan and its realization as a “rule” that cannot be violated under any circumstances. The project life cycle regulates the start, and the termination of the project, depending on the expenses and the productivity of the projects. Project management requires a clear division of responsibilities between different teams, which all together form one solid management block. The person, who is in charge of the project, a project manager has to be competent enough in order to lead the project to its best potential. The project sponsor and the project team are supposed to present a mutual commitment to the project. The main word to describe the notion of the future result of project management is success. This success is achieved through constant communication between the members of the project team, which provides a high quality cooperation that becomes rather effective in the long run. There must be a planning team to set a plan with concrete objectives, goals, and tasks and limit the budget for the project and its deadline. The implementation of the project owing to the communication between the project members is expected to go in the given direction without any deviations at all. It is this criterion that defines the effectiveness of the project management the most from the point of view of Cleland. So with the adjustment of the project plan the project itself goes through several phases: study of its feasibility, project planning, implementation, evaluation and the maintenance of the project in its most productive position. The maintenance is the vital part for any project product. It requires deep planning and more strategy than any of the other phases.
Project management key elements.
The project management system includes 5 main key elements that provide the correct work of the whole project structure. They are: matrix, project-planning, information, project-control and cultural ambience. The division of responsibilities forms the matrix. The Project-planning subsystem deals with dividing the project’s functioning into different components, responsible for different actions, which is also connected to the matrix. The informational subsystem is represented by the general information about the project and the communication within the project’s structure, including stakeholders and so on. The project control system is directly related to the pre and post evaluating of the project, including milestones or in other words full monitoring of the project’s execution. Cultural ambience is very important for the successful implementation of a project due to the presence of the human factor in every single division. This has a high impact on project leadership and is the main factor in team management.
Strategic Issues in Project Management
As David Cleland considers a project to be the leading force in the design and the usage of any strategy by a company he takes strategic issues of a project as the premises of its implementation. The Board of Directors is to be responsible for analyzing strategic plan for any project and establishing capital projects. Stakeholder management is very helpful here, because the board of directors can appeal not to a definite project team in general, but to the senior project manager responsible for the work of the team. He, in turn appeals to the team members he needs to correct the situation or just in order to control. According to Cleland’s book this is the way the whole system in under constant control and checked for following the path chosen by the strategy of the project. To launch any project requires a very scrupulous work and some projects are just not worth of it. That is the reason some projects can be predicted to fail from the very beginning without wasting time and costs on its implementation. One of the possible problems that may cause the failure of the project is ineffective planning, as plan is the core of the project management. Senior oversight, caused by the incompetence in addition to inappropriate organizational design may be fatal for a project. The contingent of the team has to be carefully revised before approving. Another very important aspect is the reality, the reachability of the set objectives. Objectives that are unrealistic form the very start are doomed. The project has to follow the principle of continuous improvement at any times. As Cleland states, strategic planning occurs through the preselection and evaluation of the future possible results of the given project. This evaluation is related to the ultimate evaluation and deals with the level of effectiveness of the project, it’s relation to state-to-the-art technology, possible return on investment, the satisfaction of customer’s needs and the probability of meeting the deadline. The project result is the mission that has to be achieved and fixed. “To be the number one aerospace company in the world and among the premier industrial concerns in terms of quality, profitability and growth.”(The Boeing Company) This is the mission that was set by the Boeing Company and led it to the very top leaders. Their strategic goals meet the requirements of project management and realized them in the business their organization was rotating in. Giving a lot of practical information Cleland makes a strong stress on the ability to set clear objectives one more time. The objective is supposed to achieve the “vision”-the image of what the organization should be in the future in its maximum potential. For instance, the example of Wall-Mart: ”Providing customers with quality goods and making the goods available when and where customers want them”. A clear goal that through correct management perfectly implemented in true life company’s position in the world’s market. From Cleland’s opinion the way to the objective is made of blocks and milestones that have to be evaluated at different times. The usage of different critical resources for each goal is vital in obtaining the best goal for an organization.
Interpersonal dynamics and teams
As the cultural ambience has been already mentioned above throughout the review it is necessary to emphasize its meaning in the process of work and implementation of the project. It influences greatly the interpersonal dynamics within the team members and as there are so many factors to take in count it is very difficult to ignore it. The interpersonal relations form the cultural ambience of the organization making it a stronger or a weaker “body”. Certainly, an organization with a weak ambience will not perform outstanding results due to the lack of unity. Unity is the guarantee of a well-coordinated work with the most effective results. People in project management need to manage various projects and for doing it they need to trust each other and not feel uncomfortable with each other. In order to follow this “golden” rule it is necessary to have employees that are all at an excellent level of performance and competence. Only under the condition of considering this factor senior can be sure to obtain well-adjusted performance. The proper work of the project teams, being an integral part of project management, starts being one of the primary milestone tasks. Cleland considers alternative teams to be one of the most effective existing “tool” to perform efficient quality and operate properly, it is also considered to be a mean of achieving high motivation of any worker no matter how low or high his position is. Cross-functional teams represent units that do not just work with one certain problem, but show a functional and system approach towards the solution of a given problem, including various human resources. These teams are many-sided and confirm the principle of a holistic system. The teams appear to be systems inside of one big controlling system, making this way a great cycle of interconnection. The idea of having teams altogether forming the project management system is completely based on the ability of these teams enable everyone in the company to participate in the design and implementation of different strategies. These strategies will lately make the organization more competitive. Cleland thinks that the formation of a team is a very important phase in the introduction of a project in any organization. An incorrect selection of team members may lead to an unproductive activity, holding up the rest of the structural formations of the project. That is the reason it is very important to “match” the members of the team in order to gain a better productivity and efficiency of work. It is the belief of David Cleland that the ultimate task of the teams is not only to reach for the goals they have set for themselves but also to “building blocks” in the design and execution of competitive strategy of the project management. The integration of the teams and maintenance of interpersonal positive dynamic perfectly suits the strategic plan of any organization using project management as their ruling principle. The teams in the huge block the form have to be in constant change and improvement, using as many resources as they can, especially including critical resources. The culture of an organization as a whole gets definite benefits from using the team-structure. On one hand it gives every employee the opportunity to reveal himself within him team, and constantly move if not vertically, but at least horizontally. On the other hand it endures the commitment to the organization and therefore increases its productivity supported with milestone goal achievement and the phased control.
Project management implementation
According to Cleland, the implementation of the project management is a very wide process. It primarily deals with choosing a goal, planning the work and executing it. The projects are expected to bring certain “value” to the organization and that is the reason the implementation needs to start with the analysis and evaluation of the real need of project management for the organization at this defined period. The growth of an organization may have certain risks if the organization does not really posses the required resources at the time of the primary implementation period and the final product is not at a sufficient demand among the customers of the company. The organization, in the opinion of Cleland has to be able at any time to supports strategic goals with all the required resources. The project has to provide something unique in order to completely achieve. Project management means making the right decisions in the right moment at the minimum possible cost. Such companies as Microsoft, General Motors, Daimler Chrysler and many other organizations have already implemented the project management system. The results speak for themselves.
A clear stating of the goal, right planning and scrupulous execution lead to a successful achievement of all the tasks and milestone goals. The presence of these milestone goals in its place becomes on the most important controlling tasks of project management implementation. The selection of a project and its “profitability” and therefore full evaluation is the task that can be completely achieved through working in teams only. The purpose of project management is the achievement of the “vision” of the organization or the achievement of the future possible image in the sphere of its functioning.
The last important issue to mention concerning the book is the project risk. Project risk is designed for the prevention of an undesired outcome of a project. The management of the risk becomes the key of the control over the uncertainty in the project. It evaluates the possible risk of the project and prevents it even before the critical situation may occur and is always based on definite facts and their analysis. This is often done through the standard risk model. It analyses the possible risk event and its possible impact with total loss of the organization. So, mainly it deals with the identification of risks using numerous professional tools such as: work-breakdown structure of a project, schedule-based prevention, process-based prevention, prompt-list based prevention of risks and of course success-thwarting that uses success factors to prevent the possibility of risks.
Generally speaking project management is a great substitution to any management model existing in the contemporary society. David I. Cleland’s and Lewis R. Ireland’s “Project Management: Design and Implementation” is a great book for those organizations that seek the best model of reaching their goals. The constant changing enviroment strongly demands new techniques of management. The model offered by Cleland has a primary goal of doing the best for the development of any project through the cooperation of various departments of the organization. The main focus of the book is the teamwork and strategic planning. According to the book the right and appropriate strategy and structure of an organizaion can be a guarantee of the best possible result. Nevertheless, project management is not only about techniques. It is about converting an organization in one solid formation, one being, that will exist and function for the sake of all of its components. Our society desperately needs a decent enviroment for the implementation of project management. And as Cleland states the strategic context of project management, project governance and the proper organizational design will help it a lot. Periodic risk monitoring also supports this whole system of tools, decreasing the possibility of getting an undesirable result to its minimum.
“Project Management: Strategic Design and Implementation”
by David I. Cleland and Lewis R. Ireland/ McGraw-Hill/4 edition /2002.
This course was a really new experience for me both from learning point of view and performance wise. The practical part of the course was really helpful where ones get a chance to implement all the knowledge gain during the lectures and through self-studies. I have learnt that innovation requires collaboration, creativity, practical implementation and added value to the product. And this task becomes much easier if you have an interdisciplinary team working for a unified goal. I have truly learned a systemic approach to designing a product, that how to start from scratch and nothing to build a customer oriented or to introduce a new product into the market, how to work in teams for short span of time, how to manage and divide tasks within the group, which project management methodology to apply depending upon the nature of the project, how to filter the needs or requirements of the products, how to look for patents, benchmark for the particular project you are working on to have the basic knowledge of what already is out there available in the market. How to be creative during the synthesis of concepts for your topic or project. In my learning diaries I will be explaining the concepts learnt during the lectures, group works, workshops and mostly through self-studies.
I learnt that most important part of the planning stage is building project team. Generally try to establish your team as soon as possible. Identifying one or two people even during the initial stages is also possible sometimes. Appointing the team early get the most out of their ownership to the project, and maximizes what they can contribute towards the product development. The first step in building an effective project team is to create a resource plan. A resource plan requires you to understand and identify the work to be done and the human skills required to complete it. An initial plan is often a high-level outline and will be refined as you break down into parts the whole of your work.
To develop an effective team, you have to start by choosing the best people for the job. This sounds obvious, but determining the best candidates isn’t always straightforward. Many factors concerning potential members have to be considered, including factors such as: the skills required of them to complete project tasks, their level of influence in the organization, their access to a network of other resources, their capacity to participate effectively, their ability to work well in a team environment.
Sometimes, project managers don’t have the freedom of choosing team members. Members may be assigned to the project team. If this is your situation, it is vital that you take extra care to establish a relationship with your team members before the team begins to meet as a group. Otherwise, they may not feel connected to the rest of the project team or, worse, may feel put upon and lack any commitment to the project.
Communication is an essential part of team work. Without successful communication, it is very difficult to achieve the desired result. When information is shared effectively, the workload is divided between the team members and task at hand becomes easier for all. During our project we used skype, whatsapp and Google drive for the communication purposes within our group. With so many available social apps these days in the market it’s really easier for the teams to get started and have effective communication right way. It is essential that team communication occurs throughout the project in order to minimize confusion and unnecessary delays. Team members more freely share their ideas, thoughts and opinions, thus offering additional opportunities for innovation and creativity. Messages to be communicated become simplified when there is effective communication. Chances for misunderstandings are minimized, if not altogether excluded. Team attention remains on the project, completing tasks and such activities, and whatever energy is necessary in the best interest of the project.
Figure 1. One out of five projects is unsuccessful due to ineffective communications.
The product development process can be pictured as a funnel with a large number of new product ideas entering the concept stage, narrowing down to a fewer number in subsequent stages. Separating these each stage is a phase review where a decision is made to skip the product, enter into the next stage or redirect back to a previous stage for additional work. The purpose of the concept stage is to quickly assess a new product opportunities. This activity will be performed by a product manager with support from others in the team. The product concept proposal will typically include: description of product concept and unique/new selling proposition, Preliminary market opportunity assessment, economical overview, technical valuation, preliminary financial analysis, planned schedules, recommended core team members. The objective of the system level design is to define the product which has to be developed, and to complete the business strategy for the product. During the next stage the assumptions made during the concept stage are verified through further market research and competitive analysis. Engineering assumptions will be verified in this stage by more detailed design and feasibility tests.
Figure 2 Product development process
Lean Startup product development encourages us to first investigate if there is a need of the product in the market before we worry about the details of the new product. While old-style approaches also recommend carrying out market research and study before we engage in product planning and definition, lean approaches increase the speed at which a startup team will operate. This allows startup teams to fail and learn faster, to adapt their product strategy and tactics rapidly, and to hopefully launch the right product with the right features in the market.
Figure 3. Lean startup product development method
We as a group chose lean and agile method for project management. Agile Software Development methodology is for a project that needs extreme agility in requirements. Agile project management focuses on doing the process piece-by-piece, rather than in one big portion like the traditional approach. Agile methodology handles project change and complexity through communication between project team members and end users. It enables teams to appropriately respond to irregularity through short additional work sections, such as Scrum ‘sprints’. These sprints aim at bringing a well-tested, functional working prototype. Planning and changes in design occur throughout the project based on lessons that are learned along the way. There’s no shame in looking back to refine the outcomes or features of the product at any stage.
The work these days are more and more demanding and companies need to develop products of high quality in a short span of time. The technology is shifting rapidly and the industry is globalizing where with the help of this technology it’s easier for smaller and medium size companies to reach the international market. On the other hand the bigger companies are continuously improving their processes, products and services are likely to survive in the changing market where medium sized and startup companies are booming at a very rapid speed. This is why the industry has started to hire more and more interdisciplinary teams for the product development. An interdisciplinary team consists of specialists of their own fields. A typical interdisciplinary team includes specialists of research and development, engineering, manufacturing, marketing, economics, arts, business, and design. By combining individuals’ strengths in a group will add value to the product and eventually to the company. Usage of interdisciplinary teams has accelerated the product development cycle which will result fast launch of the product into the market, lowered the production costs as those teams will evaluate each and every aspect of the product before sending it to the manufacturing phase, it is usually noticed that time spend in research and development phase before sending the product to manufacturing stage will decrease the cost of the product and avoid unnecessary breaks, and even doubled the estimated sales. The value of interdisciplinary teams is that every member has their own expertise and viewpoint from their own field. The diversity of the group increases access to different types of information. A group with the members all from different backgrounds can sometimes solve the problems which will take months within a week or even the problems which feel impossible to crack. The group members also learn from each other and might get some important contacts from the other fields. The good thing is that every person know their role in the group according to their own skills set so they must contribute their maximum effort. This lets them to focus on the parts they’re really good at and the other members will balance them in the areas where they don’t have the core skills. This will creates a positive atmosphere and that increases productivity. A team with different expertise ensures that all the tasks of a project are completed. Even after this the interdisciplinary teams has to have the talent, knowledge, experience and technical know-how to get the job done. The team needs also a unified goal and a good leader who will lead them to the right way in the process of development. Team work is difficult, especially in a group with different skills and expertise. The group members might have opposing viewpoints which can lead to conflicts, waste of time, and it may cause damage decisions or the team’s relationships. Collaboration is sometimes problematic, because every profession has its own language and it can lead to misunderstandings. Sometimes the group members use stereotypes and do not understand the value of the other ones skills and knowledge. Everyone should be valued and listened to in the team. The situation where a team member does not feel at ease and is scared to share his or her views may cut down the amount of ideas and expertise that can be crucial for the accomplishment of the project. Due to the differences in skills, interests and trainings, the team members are likely to observe the project or problem from different point of views. The group will think outside the box and that will lead to breakthrough innovations.
Source: IPD Handbook ver1.0
There is a right way and a wrong way to run a brainstorm or ideation meeting. A little preparation is required at the initial stage of the product development. It is very important to separate the two phases. The first part is idea generation when we will use divergent method of thinking. The second part is about idea selection where will use convergent thinking.
The first step of Idea generation using divergent thinking consist of suspend judgment: No one is allowed to criticize or even discuss an idea. As ideas are expressed they are simply recorded. This can be done on post-it, computers, white boards or flip charts but no fault-finding or comments are allowed at this stage to slow down the process of idea flow. Go for quantity instead of quality at this stage: Quantity leads to quality in brainstorms so don’t stop until you have a large number of ideas ‘ usually upto 100 or more. Go beyond reason: Wild ideas are useful because they challenge limits and inflame other fresh ideas. Ride on other people’s Ideas: When one person proposes a inventive concept others should add something on with extensions, alternatives, developments and specific ways to make it occur. Associate with each other’s ideas. Shift people out of routine thinking.
The second phase now is idea selection using convergent thinking method, Set criteria: Make an initial list of the ideas using some broad criteria agreed with the group. For example we want concepts that will satisfy customers, user experience, increase awareness and can be implemented in the next 2 months. Discuss the short list: When you are down to say 5 to 6 good ideas then discuss them productively. Sometimes there is a clear agreement as to which are the best. Sometimes you might want to vote to see which are the most popular. Write the list down to some really good ideas. The brainstorm is worthwhile only if it delivers actions. We should run consistent brainstorm meetings with your team. They should be exciting and motivational for people. They can deliver the concepts and innovations you need to renovate your organization.
How to be more creative and productive in the dreaming and scheming phase?
Be willing to explore and play. If you’re trying to rush through this stage, you’re going to shut down your creativity and end up thinking smaller and creating a plan to create something mediocre. Rather than trying to figure it all out on paper or in your head, get out into the real world and test out your rough ideas. In the world of design and engineering, product requirements (also called ‘constraints’) can often feel like restraints to our creativity and ability to design a great product or solution. We’ve all experienced the feeling of frustration when a constraint has kept us from implementing a good solution, sometimes literally by only tenths of a millimeter. No doubt, constraints in product design can make our lives difficult, and finding a solution that fits them all simultaneously is no easy task. However, respecting the importance that constraints play in driving a great design solution may help you look at them more as your friend rather than your enemy.
Concept selection is the process of evaluating concepts with respect to customer needs and other criteria, comparing the relative strengths and weaknesses of the concepts, and selecting one or more concepts for further investigation or development (SWOT analysis: strength, weakness, opportunities, threats). Decision techniques used for selecting concepts range from intuitive approaches to structured methods. Successful design is facilitated by structured concept selection. It is two stage process: concept screening and concept scoring. Concept screening uses a reference concept to evaluate concept variants against selection criteria. Concept scoring may use different reference points for each criterion. Concept screening uses a coarse comparison system to narrow the range of concepts under consideration. Concept scoring uses weighted selection criteria and a finer rating scale. Concept scoring may be skipped if concept screening produces a dominant concept. Both screening and scoring use a matrix as the basis of a six step process.
The six steps are:
Prepare the selection matrix
Rate the concepts
Rank the concepts
Combine and improve the concepts
Select one or more concepts
Reflect on the results and the process.
One of the reasons for us to select our project was that we wanted to design something based on emotion. Going beyond the basics functionality, consistency, and usability and we wanted to design something for humans, not for machines. We Learn how to express our brand’s personality and delight our audience through emotional design.
Figure 4. Design for Emotion
Most researchers within the field of product development agree on the importance of understanding customer needs when developing products. For example, Matzler, K. (1996) mentions: ‘A high level of customer satisfaction is one of the most powerful indicators for the future of a business. Satisfied customers are loyal customers and ensure a lasting cash-flow for the business in the future.’ As Ulrich, K. and Eppinger, T. (2008) puts it; ‘Developing great products is hard. Few companies are highly successful more than half the time. These odds present significant challenges for a product development team’. Similarly, Lager, T. (2005) mentions that ‘Nor is it enough anymore to develop a product that pleases the customer; it must also be better than competing products in the global arena.’ A company’s economic success depends on their ability to identify customer needs and quickly create products that meet the needs at a low cost (Ulrich, K. and Eppinger, T. 2012). In order to stay competitive on the market. Accordingly, to deliver an attractive end-product, it is important to keep customer focus in all stages of the product development process for all involved departments.
Figure 5. Customer oriented product development
During the workshops I have learnt the importance of converting your ideas into a tangible or CAD simulation prototype. In the earlier stages of product development once the team has selected the concept and wanted to pursue with their that idea, it is really important to make sketches and do some rough, quick and dirty prototyping as this will reveal number of issues related to design, feasibility and questions related to user experience. Right after the rapid prototype workshop I enrolled for a special course designed for 3D printing enthusiast. To learn how to use and print your own model with complex lattice structures. To meet the rigorous demands of product designers and development engineers, prototyping materials are the critical link to product design validation and product development process efficiency. Successful OEMs and product developers understand the value of time. Time-to-market can be dramatically reduced if prototype-to-production bridge materials mirror production material specifications. Most often it is not practical to produce hard tools to make a few parts. Hard tools are costly and time consuming. Design iterations and engineering revisions could quickly absorb budget, time and patience to complete a project.
The basic procedure for all rapid prototyping techniques can be summarized as follows:
1. A CAD model is built, then converted to STL format. The resolution can be set to minimize stair stepping.
2. The Rapid Prototype machine processes the .STL file by creating sliced layers of the model.
3. The first layer of the physical model is created. The model is then lowered by the thickness of the next layer, and the process is repeated until completion of the model.
4. The model with any unnecessary supports are removed from the final product. The surface of the model is then manually finished and cleaned.
Figure 6. 3D printing selfie: An inspiration
Writing my last lecture diary today for this course I will conclude it on summarizing the main concepts which were discussed during the interdisciplinary product development course. The interdisciplinary teams going to play an important role in future products development. Now the trend is shifting towards more and more user and costumer oriented designing. Companies and startups are more focusing on the customer demands, what they need, what problems they are facing, these been possible because of including interdisciplinary team member in decision making and product development stages. So now they can bring up the issues on to the table long before launching any product or service. Having a R&D person, marketing and manufacturing person sitting on the same table and brain storming for a unified goal or product will close the communication gap which uses to exist before when every team members used to work individually on their tasks without hearing the input from the person of different skill expertise. The design problems needed to be approach in a systemic ways, ones cannot tackle the problems or can came up with best possible solution if the project is not started in a systemic way. For designing a new product there is a systemic approach in which you start with choosing a team, choosing a project management method, development process, knowing the main problem of your project which you have to solve, from those problems you have to extract the requirement, needs or constraints depending upon the external governing factors. Lean startup product development combine with agile has to be adopted for startup companies. Once you know the domain of your problem and constraints then you start looking for benchmark, patents so you can create the concepts and once you have selected enough concepts within your team then you need to evaluate them using the previous available information. Even for concept synthesis there is a systematic approach which led you to the best optimal solution for the later stages of prototyping. And technologies now a days such as rapid prototyping has changed the way developers work these days. It has shorten the time to launch the product to the market with low cost and high quality.